Ile Maurice : renaissance d’une destination rhum

Paysage typiquement mauricien, fleur de canne sur fond d'azur intense et de montagne. © Anne Gisselbrecht Paysage typiquement mauricien, fleur de canne sur fond d'azur intense et de montagne. © Anne Gisselbrecht

Paysage typiquement mauricien, fleur de canne sur fond d’azur intense et de montagne. © Anne Gisselbrecht

Les rhums mauriciens se font de plus en plus présents sur la scène européenne, pourtant cette origine lointaine reste méconnue. Cette méconnaissance est liée à l’histoire paradoxale du rhum mauricien.

Si le développement du sucre n’y a jamais connu de halte depuis l’introduction de la canne au 17ème siècle par les Hollandais, le rhum n’y a jamais réellement prospéré. La première cause en est certainement l’éloignement des routes commerciales mais nous avons identifié deux autres causes majeures. Tout d’abord la conquête de Madagascar par la France à la fin du 19ème siècle alors que

Maurice était sous giron Britannique l’a privé de son principal débouché. Ensuite, une loi, étrange, datant du début du siècle interdisait jusqu’à récemment aux Mauriciens de distiller en dessous de 93%. On a longtemps cherché les causes de cette loi sans en trouver réellement la source ni les causes. Elle a peut-être été mise en place pour lutter contre la distillation clandestine et on a pensé également qu’elle avait pu être imposée par l’Angleterre en contrepartie d’achats bonifiés de la production sucrière mauricienne et, ce, pour protéger les rhums de ses autres colonies. Mais rien ne le prouve et ce d’autant que la loi a été maintenue après l’indépendance en 1968.

Finalement, peu importe sa cause, son iniquité a fini par sauter aux yeux du gouvernement mauricien et en 2000, les producteurs retrouvaient le droit de distiller du vrai rhum. Une définition du rhum de l’ile Maurice basée sur celle des rhums agricoles a alors été officialisée et depuis, c’est l’éclosion de distilleries et de projets. Les deux dernières distilleries encore en activité (Gray’s et Medine) ont pu enfin produire et stocker de véritables rhums pendant que sortaient de terre de nouvelles installations d’abord modestes puis de plus en plus ambitieuses : Saint-Aubin en 2003 puis 2011, Chamarel en 2006, Labourdonnais en 2008 et la petite dernière Oxenham en 2010.

Toutes rivalisent de volontarisme, explorent, testent, approfondissent, avec des outils, des cultures et des stratégies différentes. C’est ce foisonnement qui fait une part belle au rhum pur jus que nous sommes allés rencontrer à Maurice et que nous vous proposons de découvrir à travers une série d’articles riches en photos présents dans les Carnets de Voyages. Bon voyage sur rumporter.com.

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